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Essay(s) by Govor


Millenarianism is the term uniting all ideas about the end of the world. The term comes from Latin millennium, meaning thousand, and is referring to the thousand year's era after which the world will end. It is also called chiliasm from thousand in Greek, and sometimes millennialism. Apocalypticism is another term for the same, it comes from apocalypsis and it means the revelation in Greek (Apocalypse of John is therefore translated as the Book of Revelation). Other terms describing the event are the doom's day, judgment day, last judgment, end days, end times, the end of the world, final battle, etc. The study of the end (eschatos in Greek) is called eschatology. Millenarianism by Govor is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License


1. First Judgment Released from Croatia
2. Origin of Millenarianism at the fall of 2014.
3. End of a World
4. Gods of the Doom [This is the column for references,
5. Apocalypse Now abbreviations and additional info.]
6. Polluting the Ugly World Characters: 63981
7. Universal Millenarianism Words: 12806

First Judgment

If, as Tom Waits sing, "there ain't no devil, there's just God when he's drunk" then the Judgment Day is when God will get so drunk he'll fall down from the heavens, and on what better day than when celebrating his thousand birthday? Mr. Siegal - Heartattack and Vine - Tom Waits

Unfortunately the millenarian belief is not that simple. Already in Christianity, we find varieties of ideas and the main two attitudes towards the coming of the kingdom of God. First is the passive, doomsday waiting for the miraculous, super-material event. Second is the active hard work of creating the conditions by "Christian conquest of the world by means of the gospel". The Biblical World, Volume 46 - Millenarianism in Christian History - Abbreviated: MCH - George Cross - p.3-8
The Early Christian expectations were the second advent (coming) of Jesus Christ. Other events that follow are "the resurrection of the dead, the end of the world, the final judgment, the destruction of the wicked, and the entrance of the righteous upon their heavenly reward." There are many other apocalypses written, but the Book of Revelation by John the Evangelist is the most famous.
Other less commonly expected events are the appearance of the Antichrist, the battle of Armageddon, the resurrection of righteous only and the millennial reign. Different authors accepted the realism of the narrative on a different level. It can be said in general that the "great creeds of the church, [...], ignore the millennium but emphasize the second coming, the real resurrection, and the final judgment." Before going any further let us go a step back into the horror. [...from the "Apostles" down to the pronouncements of the Third Council of Constantinople...] - MCH -p.8

The first and the most obvious problem for Christian millenarians is the resurrection. The resurrection of the dead is contradictory to the immortality of the soul. First probably comes from Persia and second from Greece. These two civilizations influenced the Jews in pre-rabbinic age (not later than fifth century BC). "The one refers to a collective resurrection at the end of days, i.e., that the dead sleeping in the earth will arise from the grave, while the other refers to the state of the soul after the death of the body." Encyclopedia Judaica, Second Edition, Volume 11 - Fred Skolnik and Michael Berenbaum - p.515

We can imagine the ways these two beliefs can be compatible. The Spanish horror movie series REC has done just that. The movie combined the resurrected, living dead of the zombie apocalypse, soul possession and viral pandemic. REC, REC 2 - Jaume Balagueró and Paco Plaza
Zombies are possessed souls who are spreading by a typical zombie bite; the infected souls are spreading like a virus. So in the most literalist scenarios, zombie-demon infection can be cured by an antidote. Spoiler alert. The cure got forever lost. The third movie showed the weakest point of the zombie-demons. In desperation, the priest started to read the Bible over a loudspeaker and they instantly stopped moving, like they were hypnotized. Literalists are trying to explain religious text word for word even by "science". Relics, all curing waters, magic places, etc. They are the super-materialists.
This created an escape route through zombie-demons. The most ironically, the word of God can only affect the living-dead. REC 3 - Paco Plaza

The first judgment is made on this super-material God of the passive, doomsday waiting for the miraculous, super-material event. In waiting, God finally starts to drink, and after explaining the smallest detail about his great plan, ends up too drunk to do it.

The Origin of Millenarianism

"And though St. John the Evangelist saw many strange monsters in his vision, he saw no creature so wild as one of his own commentators." Orthodoxy - G. K. Chesterton - p.10

Historical materialism is the most elegant theory in the compartment of comparative mythology. With "the precision of natural science" we can analyze the economic conditions of a historical period (and geographic region) to understand the mythology (and later myth development). The first thesis is that the millenarian ideas originate from the fire agriculture. Preface to a Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy - Karl Marx

"Slash-and-burn agriculture has been among the most extensive and most long-lasting that ever existed". Some other names are forest cultivation, fire cultivation, fire farming, shifting cultivation. It is based on the ash as the fertilizer. It was dominant in different regions for thousands of years and it is still used today. A History of World Agriculture - Marcel Mazoyer and Laurence Roudart - Abbreviated: HWA - p.126

Fire agriculture was present in the times (first century AC) when the Book of Revelation was written in Asia Minor. Chapter "The Harvest on Earth" mentions three angels: first two angels had a sharp sickle in their hands and the third angel "had charge of the fire". (No water angel in this chapter, even though "the angel in charge of the waters" appears in the text, and is mentioned two chapters after when turning water into blood.) The Holy Bible - New International Version -Abbreviated: NIV - Revelation 14:18

We can predict that the myths where the world ends in fire match regions where the dominant type of economic activity was the slash-and-burn agriculture. The biggest problem of this thesis is that fire cultivation was replaced by other agrarian systems, usually based on water. In result, till today, there is an unscientific bias towards the water.

The bias is evident in the author's comment on the end of the world story of the Yurucare (Yurujare) people from the Bolivian lowlands. "The Demon Aymasune sent down a great fire storm to destroy humanity. Only one man was saved from the fire storm; he hid in a cave, holding out a stick at regular intervals to see if the fire had stopped. On the third try the stick was cool, and after four more days the man came out to see the blackened world and to begin a new life." And the author comments: "Obviously this is a fire version of the Great Flood." Creation Myths of The World, an Encyclopedia, Second Edition - David A. Leeming - Abbreviated: CMW - p.293

Water bias is really strange given the famous Persian religion: "Zoroastrianism was one of the first belief systems to include a vision of the end of the world." After appearances of three saviors the "world would be enveloped in fire and molten metal for three days. Everyone who has ever lived would return to life to cross the fire, but only the wicked would suffer from the heat. This final judgment would purge sin and evil from the world, leaving an innocent human race in a cleansed world to worship Ahura Mazda." UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology - Gale, Cengage Learning - Abbreviated: UXL - p.833

Historical turn from fire to water can be annually witnessed in Slavic "Ivan Kupala Day" (Feast of St. John the Baptist; Ivanjski krijesovi). The night where people jump over bonfires is named after the John the Baptist who is famous for water ritual (baptism). Encyclopedia of Russian & Slavic Myth and Legend - Mike Dixon-Kennedy - p.12
One Russian myth even combines these two together: Saint Nicholas pushes the possessed princess into the fire and after she is purged from evil; he restores her to life and baptizes her. Jumping over bonfires looks like a mockery of the supernatural event.

To regain the lost historical picture about the importance of fire, Fire: A Brief History from Stephan J. Pyne is a good start. (The book covers fire mythology only on a few pages). There are plenty of fire ceremonies and myths across the globe as the reminder. Celts held fire festivals several times each year, with Beltane Fire Festival as the most spectacular. Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore - Patricia Monaghan - Abbreviated: ECMF - p.41, p.195, p.144, p.350
There is also the famous story of "Easter fire" or "Paschal fire" lit by St. Patrick in an attempt to Christianize Ireland. People celebrated by leaping over fires, whose ashes were used in blessings. The Aztecs held the New Fire Ceremony every 52 years on the day two calendars (solar and sacred) ended. In a Mayan creation story world ended in a great fire that showered the heavens and Earth with fine ash. South and Meso-American Mythology A to Z, Second Edition - Ann Bingham - Abbreviated: SMAM - p.70, p.111, p.143
Japanese fire festivals called Shinto rituals were originally performed twice a year, in several regions they are held in August, July, October and January with many smaller rituals on the New Year, when the world is symbolically ending and beginning in fire. Japanese Mythology A to Z, Second Edition - Jeremy Roberts - p.39

Fire cultivation is at most importance in understanding the millenarian idea. Not just that the new world is emerging from the ashes, but the power was in the farmer's hands. Comparatively, large hydraulic systems have been associated with the Despotic State which was "well adapted to the necessities of managing large hydraulic systems". HWA - p.165

On the opposite, fire agriculture made easier the redistribution of land. Vikings after settling in the Island have registered it in the Landnámabók (Book of Settlements, around thousand years AC). "When after sixty years of chaotic scramble, Islanders Fire: A Brief History - Stephan J. Pyne - p.38
needed to reestablish land title in a methodological way, they reenacted the means by which they had first taken possessions. For a day each landowner lit great bonfires and then walked, torch in hand, as far as he could advance from dawn to dusk. The land symbolically burned would be those he could hold in title." Pyne doubts if the Island had enough wood-fuel for such an event, but this is one of the clearest visions of a new egalitarian world made by fire. I did injustice not quoting Pyne properly in my last essay Lucifer because the book has become unavailable to me. Now you can read it partially on Google.
Less clear are the evidences in Norse mythology (composed about thousand years AC). Destruction of the world of Ragnarok (Doom of the Gods) is done by the fire after the world sank beneath the sea. Then the earth rises from the deeps green and abundant. CMW - p.469-476
Icelanders definitely knew that salty sea water is no good for agriculture and land flora. The myth also suggests a location that saved people from the fire, but not from drowning. And how do you set the drowned world on fire? The role of apocalyptic fire god Surtr and trickster fire god Loki (and his children), in the final war of gods, confirms the thesis. The vision of an abundant earth looks like a farmer's fantasy. The Goods of the Doom chapter cover Loki, his children and other fire gods in more detail.

Ragnarok, like the John's apocalypse, is a war myth. Usual explanations for conflict, between the sky deities of the Aesir and the earth deities of Vanir, are racial, tribal or religious. CMW - p.469-476
Aesir gods, led by Odin and Thor, represent the moral and social order and the Vanir gods, who were closer to humans, are concerned with fertility and productivity. This conflict can be easily explained in the class terms; the Aesir represents the ruling classes and the Vanir represent the farmers. Doom of the Gods comes from Old Norse Ragna, meaning the ruling and rök meaning doom, destruction.

Last example and an introduction to the next chapter is Chinese god Shen Nong (Shennong), meaning divine or sacred farmer also called the Fire God or the Fire Emperor. He is a god form the period when a world was coming to an end. He ruled with the agent of fire, as the fire farmer, and invented the new farming techniques. His kingdom was a post-millenarian vision, an agrarian utopia in complete harmony without laws and war. Shen Nong invented medicine and agriculture. Through trial and error, like in the scientific method, he tested different herbs to find the cure and analyzed useful and harmful qualities of plants. "Rather than possessing infinite knowledge, he is an experimenter and a learner." He invented farmer's markets, musical instruments, calendar and many other things. There was also class awareness among the authors of Shen Nong, "because they show the emperor and his wife doing manual labor in the fields." Chinese Mythology A to Z, Second Edition - Jeremy Roberts - p.43, p.112-113

To conclude. When historical materialism is proclaimed a dead theory, then we should be afraid, but for the opposite reasons we are afraid of zombies. In the voodoo tradition of Haiti, a zombie is "one of the most feared of beings". Zombi is a person who is murdered, buried and brought back to life. Historical materialism, while being the most elegant, is even scarier than zombies. It hunts history in underground: it is alive when buried, when dug out it dies. I'll come back to this monster later. The Facts on File Encyclopedia or World Mythology and Legend - Anthony S. Mercatante & James R. Dow - Abbreviated: FFE - p.1064

End of a World

"Wherever the poetry of myth is interpreted as biography, history, or science, it is killed." The Hero With a Thousand Faces - Joseph Campbell - p.249

Second thesis is that there was an end of a word: the end of a world of sacrifice. The word "sacrifice" comes from the Latin sacrificare, meaning "to make sacred"; to make something earthly into a heavenly (sacred) thing. Sacrifice is done by burning the offering on the altar (place of sacrifice). By this, offering in the form of smoke is literally carried to the heavens. Sacrifice originated from slash-and-burn cultivation. Other theories of sacrifice will not be covered here, if interested see John Milbank's Stories of Sacrifice. The very social disciplines as sociology and social anthropology are the result of the theories of sacrifice from the nineteen century. - Stories of Sacrifice - John Milbank

Defining sacrifice is a problem what Noam Chomsky calls "psychic continuity". Simply, too many different practices are included under the term "sacrifice". This leads to the abstract theories. This continuity is imagined essence. Sacrifice then appears present and unchanging from Thanksgiving turkey to burning children at the altar. The minimal, starting point is agreeing on the significant difference between the former two. The Golden Age Is in Us - Noam Chomsky interviewed by Alexander Cockburn -

The altar is the structural evidence of sacrifice. Uruk was the leading city in the ancient Mesopotamia and it is famous for his mythical king Gilgamesh. The epic is among the oldest literature (c. 2000 BC) with description of sacrifice: where the gods gathered like flies around the sweet smell. The Epic of Gilgamesh - Translated by Andrew George - p.94
(Gilgamesh also had revelations). Primitive altars found in Uruk consisted of "troughs dug into the ground and plastered with clay, sometimes lined with bricks". At the site "very large number of burnt offerings" has been identified and sacrifice was continuously practiced there for few thousand years (from the Ubaid period to the end of Jamdat Nasr). The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 1, Part 1- The Development of Cities From Al-'Ubaid to the End of Uruk 5 - Max E. L. Mallowan - p.364
Ziggurats (like that of the god Anu in Uruk) are large pyramidal structures with stairs that set the altar closer to the heavens. Different American and Asian pyramids with stairs are certainly used for the same purpose. Notice: The pyramids are in the regions matching the first agricultural societies.

Jews and Aryans have left many written documentation of altars and their use. The Bible is full of altar quotes (cca. 450). Like in the Epic of Gilgamesh, Noah's Lord was also very pleased with the aroma of sacrifice. Lord later instructs Moses to build an altar of earth for a sacrifice of cattle. But if the altar is made of stone, the Lord doesn't want it to be decorated nor to be on top of the stairs (to prevent exposure of genitals under the dress). Lord also instructs how to build an acacia wood-bronze altar in detailed dimensions with horns, pots and shovels for ashes, sprinkling bowls, meat forks, fire pans, etc. And how to build an acacia wood-golden altar of incense, also in detail. Later, they built Solomon's Temple with a large altar on the outside with a ramp leading to the top because the stairs were forbidden (but I'm not sure the ramp prevented the exposure.) NIV - Genesis 8/22, Exodus-Idols and Altars, Exodus-The Altar of Burnt Offering, Exodus- The Altar of Incense

Rig-Veda is a solid proof connecting sacrifice and fire cultivation. There are a lot of verses connecting Agni, the sacrificial messenger (fire god), with wealth, which for Aryan farmers clearly meant the abundant harvest. Here is an image of sacrifice: "From thee a Bull but newly born, O Agni, the kindled everlasting flames rise upward. Aloft to heaven thy ruddy smoke ascendeth: Agni, thou speedest to the Gods as envoy." The Hymns of the Rigveda - - Translated by Ralph T. H. Griffith - [07-003] Hymn III. Agni
Later Vedas describe different types of sacrifice in detail. In the Yajurveda we find that horse-sacrifice (ashvamedha) was one of the most important rituals and it resembles human-sacrifice (purushamedha). Human replacement for the most important animal is a possibility of how the sacrifice of animals evolved to the sacrifices of humans. The Texts of the White Yajurveda - - Translated by Ralph T. H. Griffith
In China, we find supporting evidences of human sacrifices from the oracle bone inscriptions. Prophetic, mantic, diviational, "predicting the future" purposes of these bones might have originated from the practices of sacrifice. "It has been suggested that when the bones of sacrificial animals were raked out of the ashes, already marked by cracks, these were interpreted as signs of particular events. The Cambridge History of China - The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. - A.D. 220 - Volume 1 - Abbreviated: CHCCH - Religious beliefs and practices - Michael Loewe - p.675
From the spontaneous production of such cracks from the burnt offerings there developed the deliberate attempt to produce them on other bones or shells solely for mantic purposes." On the oracle bone inscriptions, from Shang-dynasty, among many practices, we find that only burning of male human was "for a good harvest year". Methods of Killing Human Sacrifice in Shang-dynasty Oracle-bone Inscriptions - Wang Ping - p.7-9

Explanation for burning humans again show how slash-and-burn cultivation is erased from our collective memory: "In ancient people's mind, the deities lived above the sky, the smoke rosed up there and then could be received by them easily. To burn human victims originated under such kind of thought [!]" This can't explain the "good harvest year". Here is a historical materialist perspective: In ancient people's practice of fire farming, the smoke rosed up there, above the sky where the deities lived, and this was the inseparable part of the fire farming. To burn human victims originated from such kind of practices [!], given the thousands years of time. Other types of sacrifices probably evolved from burning (like drowning, burying etc.). (My emphasis [!]) Methods of Killing Human Sacrifice in Shang-dynasty Oracle-bone Inscriptions - Wang Ping - p.7-9

"By Han times [c. 200 BC], the practice of human sacrifice had apparently disappeared from China proper". This is the crucial point. CHCCH - The state and empire of Ch'in - Derek Bode - p.32
Here is the answer to why the sacrifice was ended (or in China's case only human sacrifice). Innovations in agriculture, most notable the application of animal power to cultivate with the plow and irrigation works made the apocalyptic change. It is clear from Chinese fire rituals how this is connected. CHCCH - The economic and social history of Former Han -Nishijima Sadao - p.546, p.552
In the "Ancestor of Farming" (Xianse) Temple, after the fire ceremony, sacrifices were offered to Shen Nong: "Cows and oxen are not offered as a sacrifice because they plough land and help with farming, so farmers should not slaughter them as sacrifice." Shen Nong was the inverter of new farming techniques including the water techniques. These innovations were of earlier date, but they become "widespread during the Warring States period [c. 450 BC]". Handbook of Chinese Mythology - Lihui Yang and Deming An, with Jessica Anderson Turner - Abbreviated: HCM - p.199
"With these economic changes came a corresponding change in the nature of government" but religion was too inert to end all sacrifices. Altar remained a central communal place in Han's hamlets, districts and counties. CHCCH - The economic and social history of Former Han -Nishijima Sadao - p.546, p.548

Now we can explain why the Egyptians differ so much from others, or for example, their Persians neighbors. Egyptian pyramids, unlike the others, don't have a flat top and stairs, and are not used for sacrifice. In mythology they lack fire gods and destructive ends of the world. The quick comparison to other mythologies confirms the differences: the word "fire" is mentioned a lot less in books of Egyptian mythologies compared to Japanese and Celtic mythologies*. Now is clearly evident why they didn't have fire temples like Persia, where the lack of big rivers made fire cultivation the dominant type. *Formula is instances/pages - Egyptian Mythology (0,125) - Handbook of Egyptian Mythology (0.05) - Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore (0,31) - Japanese Mythology A to Z (0,71)
Egypt's dominant type of economy was based on Nile's flood-waters. Mesopotamian agriculture developed on rivers, but they also had slash-and-burn cultivation. Chinese apparently had both, but it needed time to build up the water systems on a large scale. HWA - Egypt - p.143-187
Americas developed water systems, but lacked the domestic animals such as cows, horses, sheep, goats and pigs. This could explain the long run of human sacrifices and generally less developed economy compared to Eurasia. Egypt, as it seems, doesn’t belong to Eurasia or Africa.

Egyptians influenced, in many ways, their neighbors, Jews who made the radical step. The Book of Daniel is an apocalyptic scripture with the end of sacrifice. The authors used symbolic language, numerology and predicts great destructions and wars, but with a clear vision of a coming "end to sacrifice and offering". NIV - The Seventy "Sevens"- The End Times
To understand the end of sacrifice it is important to know that the Jews sacrificed to God only at the Temple in Jerusalem. So the destruction of the Temple meant the end of sacrifice. But the sacrificial law couldn't end that simply. Christian solution was that God came down to be the last sacrifice. Islam, youngest in the region, maybe in order to escape the Christian paradox, removed the sacrificial law from the scripture. Altar in Christianity serves for symbolic repetition of the last sacrifice and in Islam altar is removed altogether. We can say that Jews are chosen people in terms of their geographical and historical uniqueness. Monotheism still remains in the myth of Abraham rebelling against idolatry of his father.

In Abrahamic religions, human sacrifice symbolically ended in Abraham's attempt to sacrifice his son Isaac. Ram was replacement for human sacrifice. NIV - Genesis, Abraham Tested

Greeks also had a large influence on their neighbors. Hellenistic priests were accused of "no longer intent upon their service at the altar. Despising the sanctuary and neglecting the sacrifices, they hurried to take part in the unlawful proceedings in the wrestling arena after the signal for the discus-throwing" (164 BC). Common English Bible - Maccabees - Jason's Reforms
It is not certain from where this criticism is coming from when already in the Book of Leviticus (c. 538 BC) we find a type of "sacrifice" priests surely didn't neglect, it said: "… the sacrifice shall be eaten on the day he offers it, but anything left over may be eaten on the next day. Any meat of the sacrifice left over till the third day must be burned up." Three day's leftovers... Jews knew how to party… and be sure that party (like feasts and celebrations) is a common part of every religion. NIV - Leviticus - The Fellowship Offering

The large hierarchical structures were more inert to the change; the whole shift could destabilize them. Even if the clergy and statesmen didn't take sacrifice seriously the appearance needed to be preserved. Roman reaction to the rapid conversion of Egyptians to Christianity was clear. "An edict of 202 prohibited conversion to Christianity. An edict of 250 required all citizens to carry a certificate at all times, issued by local authorities, affirming that the bearer had sacrificed to the gods. Failure to comply resulted in punishments, including beheading, being tossed to the lions, or being burned alive." Encyclopedia of World History - The Ancient World Prehistoric Eras to 600 c.e. - Volume 1 - Coptic Christian Church - John H. Barnhill - p.98

It needs to be said, that some rulers were more, some less into sacrifice. For example Gōčihr the Bāzrangid is one of the rulers of Persis who showed "no interest in the fire-cult". On the other side sacrifice is overused for, what it seems, political reasons. From the oracle bone inscriptions (and other accounts) we found a variety of repressive actions justified by religion. For example, the King Wuding of Shang Dynasty declared war on the rebellious nomadic Qiang tribe. Mass murder was then justified as "sacrifice for the ancestral spirits" by the way of behading (which is the most common type of sacrifice mentioned in oracle-bone inscriptions from Shang dynasty.). This seems to match the mass murder by the Aztec emperor Tlacaelel I. On more close level, when rulers died (like in India and Egypt) their personal slaves and/or wives were killed, and this was maybe a way of preventing regicide (murder of the king). Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3, Part 2 - Religious History -Zoroastrian Religion - J. Duchesne-Guillemin - p.874

It took more than a half of millennia before the apocalypse conquered Persia. In the land of the Aryans (Iran) "fire altar served as the central symbol of the dualistic Iranian religion, Zoroastrianism". The symbol is then replaced by the Arabic script with "the profession of the new faith". The symbolic change in the states of the empire is clearly evident on the state coin imagery. The New Cambridge History of Islam - The Formation of the Islamic World Sixth to Eleventh Centuries - Chase F. Robinson - p.653-656

In India, Sramana movement didn't end sacrifice totally, similar to China, sacrifice is only partially ended. An Edict of Ashoka said: "no living beings are to be slaughtered or offered in sacrifice". Poor peasants sacrificed animals they had in possession, usually smaller animals. Asceticism, or simply not having animals to sacrifice, maybe contributed to this non-violent revelation. (Ashoka might have also influenced Muslim ruler Akbar, who prohibited killing animals on certain days.) Sacrifice continued till today in original (burnt) form and also in the form of food offering which is a "mock-sacrifice" because the statues of gods usually don't eat offered food (and food is eaten later by the people). The New Cambridge History of Islam Volume 3 - The Eastern Islamic World Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries - The Gunpowder Empires - India under Mughal rule - Stephen Dale - p.282

It took more than millennia for apocalypse to conquer all of Europe. "A period of transition was allowed in which Icelanders could offer sacrifices in private, eat horse-meat and practice infanticide, but 'a few years later this heathendom was abolished like the rest'." The Cambridge History of Scandinavia Volume 1 - Scandinavia Enters Christian Europe - Birgit Sawyer and Peter Sawyer - p.153
Mediterranean region was under the influence of the Egyptian agronomical traditions that was brought to Europe by Greek, Latin, and Arab agronomists. It seems that in the northern Europe slash-and-burn lasted longer. HWA - p.65, p.159

Americans, like the Europeans, reacted to revelation rebuilding their old sacrificial altars. Even if farmers didn't believe in sacrifice, it was a statement to their colonizers. From recordings of this transgressions we found confirming details such that: "on a hill top, between the remains of ancient temples, which they call cues, where on any given day may be found charcoal and incense and other signs of burnt offerings." The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas Volume 2 - Mesoamerica Part 2- The Highland Maya - W. George Lovell - p.416

African empires were of later date, like the American empires, because they lacked in conditions for fast agricultural development compared to Eurasia. Ghana empire (c. 800 - c. 1200) tells a story about the sacrifice and its end. We can find many parallels in the myth with other cultures and historical events. Like in the other myths, there was a clear connection of sacrifice and wealth: the "tradition of human sacrifice continued for three generations, during which time the people of Ghana enjoyed tremendous prosperity". Then "one year came when the time for the annual sacrifice arrived and a girl had been chosen". Young Soninke warrior chose not to sacrifice and killed the sacrificial god (Bida) instead. This caused the apocalyptic catastrophe: "The kingdom suffered a devastating drought. Animals died, and crops would not grow." People "fled with their belongings and became nomads, and the empire of Ghana had come to an end." The girl was young warrior's fiancée and he "could not bear to have his beloved die". Encyclopedia of African History and Culture, Volume 2 - African Kingdoms - Willie F. Page - p.176

Gods of the Doom

"The Christian tradition had tried to forget that, if Satan had been an angel, then presumably he must have been most beautiful." On Ugliness - Umberto Eco - p.179

The apparent contradiction of the Vanir gods (how farming and fertility gods become apocalyptic gods of war) can be explained in the terms of class struggle. Genealogy (family tree) of fire gods can explain the other contradictions.

Trickster was the first characteristic of fire gods. Fire first appears to belong in the heavens among the stars (sometimes in volcano). So the trick was needed for fire to come under the human domain. The trick was done by the animal (usually bird), men or god. African Mythology A to Z, Second Edition - Patricia Ann Lynch and Jeremy Roberts - Abbreviated: AM - p.47-48
!Kung people tell a story about ‡Gao!na who is, depending on tales, a creator god or a culture hero, trickster. In the story about the origin of fire only one person had the fire in the entire world and he and his family ate cooked food while everyone else ate raw food. Usign trick, ‡Gao!na stole hidden fires ticks. Then "‡Gao!na broke the fire sticks into small pieces and scattered them throughout the world. Since that time, every piece of wood contains fire and can be used to cook food." ! Kung is a group of Bushman (San) people - the oldest surviving African culture. San rock paintings date back about 30,000. - AM - p.64
Trickster is commonly a culture hero, social transformer, agent of progress, "hero who changed the world through invention or an important discovery, such as fire or agriculture." AM - p. 30

Ruler of the Earth is the second characteristic of fire gods. Fire simply rules the world like "Li, the Governor of Fire, [who] was charged to control the earth". HCM - p. 169
Americans tribes "keep a fire alive perpetually in the belief that, if the fire dies, the people will also perish". Fire gods are sometimes creators like Ababinili or in the form of the trinity like Tryambaka (collective name for Agni (fire), and his two alternative forms Trita (or Indra) as lightning and Surya as the sun). Dictionary of Mythology - J. A. Coleman - Abbreviated: DM - p.372, p.12, p.1040
The rulers of Earth are also the rulers of life and death. Ababinili is the God of Chickasaw tribe.

Third is the messenger of God. Angel, ángelos in Greek, means "messenger". Fire carries messages in the form of smoke, sacrifice to the heavens. For example Eshu is "an angel-trickster, messenger-god and god of fate". DM - p. 345
Legba, often equated with Eshu, "was given the gift of languages so the inhabitants of the earth can communicate with heavens". AM - p. 72, p. 42
Eshu was standing at crossroads of the earth and the heavens and as "a master of languages (…) carried messages and sacrifices". Eshu is god of Youribaland
"He reported to Olorun [God] on the actions of both humans and the other divinities. Acting on Olorun's orders, Eshu both rewarded and punished humans. He also investigated and reported on the correctness of worship and sacrifices. Legba is a god of Fon of Benin
Eshu had to be given an offering at the beginning of every ritual, or the ritual would fail." Investigator and reporter, or in short accuser, in Hebrew is Satan. FFE - p. 598
Azrael, the angel of death, in Jewish and Islamic mythology, also has as many "tongues as there are men in the world". Quran confirms that Iblis (Satan) is made out of fire. The Holy Quran English - Al-A'raf 13
("Legba did only what God told him to do, but the people blamed Legba when something bad occurred and credited God for the good things that happened in life. FFE - p. 138
Legba felt that this was an unfair situation. Why should he be blamed for evil?" Why, when God said: "I form the light and create darkness, I bring prosperity and create disaster; I, the Lord, do all these things."?) NIV - Isaiah 45

The Abraham Tested myth, Lord demands the sacrifice of Isaac. It is not the trick of Satan as some interpretations suggest. It is the angel who stops the sacrifice. This opens up a possibility of non-sacrificial angels (messengers) of God. If Abraham didn't truly believe in sacrifice and if God didn't sincerely demand it, then paradoxically, the end of human sacrifice story wouldn't work. When told to the people who believe in the human sacrifice it would appear as a fraud from the beginning without the true belief and sincere demand. NIV - Genesis, Abraham Tested

Most of these characteristic are present in god Olifat from Pacific islands who was a "trickster-god, fire-god and god of death". "He was a semi-divine being who ascended to heaven on a column of smoke and demanded recognition as a god." DM - p. 779
"Olifat was a contradictory figure torn between two worlds." "He sometimes rose to heaven on a column of smoke and other times descended to earth on a bolt of lightning." UXL - p. 706

As the fire-techniques developed the fire gods got more attributes. Fire gods can be gods of hunting because of the many ways of hunting with fire. When fire was used for farming, wealth (as abundant harvest) was associated with fire gods. When metallurgy (alchemy) developed fire gods were associated with jewelry and weapons, vanity and war, etc. Fire can be ascribed to anything hot or shining. Horned gods represented sacrificial animals (and sometimes phallus) Like goat Azazel or bull Moloc etc. Azazel show metallurgical attributes.

The accuser can be used in political purposes. Elaine Pagles in The Origin of Satan argue that the figure of Satan "was the source and representation of conflict within the [Jewish] community". On the opposite, the culture hero is associated with knowledge and is used against the establishment. The Origin of Satan - Elaine Pagles - p. 34, p. 39

We can try now to explain the fiery gods of Ragnarok. Loki is, in some accounts, a child of giants Firbauti and Laufeia (lightning and tree). His wife Angerbode, who is associated with forest, gave birth to Fenris, Hel and Jormungard; giant wolf, underworld goddess and the sea serpent. DM - p.631-632, p.236, p.456
Like in Europe, in America "the wolf has been both honored and feared for its strength and hunting ability." Wolf has been often a culture hero, in Ute legend, for example, wolf brought fire to the people. Hel is a god or an angel of death, an aspect of the fire god. (Gehenna, biblical hell, was a place of the sacrificial fire pit.) Jormungard is probably the reflection of the sun in the sea, which looks like it is going around the world chasing the sun. Native American Mythology A to Z, Second Edition - Patricia Ann Lynch and Jeremy Roberts - p.125
In Egypt we find Apep: "a snake-god, the serpent of chaos an aspect of Set. This demon opposed the sun-god Ra in his daily journey across the heavens. DM - p. 79
"In Haiti we find Damballa. "His symbol is a snake, arched in the path of the sun as it travels across the sky." Other candidates for sun's reflection on the sea (or the rivers) are Egyptian Apophis, South American Amarum, Siberian Losy, Australian Wollonqua and Polynesian Hemoana. Surtr is the apocalyptic aspect of fire gods. FFE- p. 289

Fire can describe emotions from hate to love. Gaston Bachelard's The Psychoanalysis of Fire is a must read if interested in fire in general. With a new perspective on fire myths we can conclude with his words:

Fire, among "all phenomena, it is really the only one to which there can be so definitely attributed the opposing values of good and evil. It shines in Paradise it burns in Hell. It is gentleness and torture. It is cookery and it is apocalypse." The Psychoanalysis of Fire - Gaston Bachelard - Translated by Alan C. M. Ross - p. 7

Apocalypse Now

"I don't know whether I am an animal or a god? - But you are both." Apocalypse Now - Francis Ford Coppola - 2:17:20

Seventeen century science and theology were closely related. "Theological arguments were fundamental to the formulation of scientific concepts." The most interesting here is Francis Bacon, the founder of the scientific method. "Bacon's concept of the reformation of learning was grounded on millenarian eschatology, and he appealed to the prophetic texts of the book of Daniel in his association of the revival of learning and the return of the dominion of man over nature with the Christian Utopia." Man "had lost his dominion at the Fall, but the Bible promised the restoration of knowledge." The New Cambridge Modern History XIII Companion Volume - The Scientific Revolutions - Peter M. Heimann - p. 252, p. 260

The fall of man, paradise lost is a predominant mythological theme of the Nilo-Saharan African linguist group. Originally heaven and earth were close together and connected. Humans and divine beings were in direct contact. AM - Introduction XIII
"Then something occurred that caused a separation" and the "supreme being receded from humanity, and death came into the world." Name for this event that caused separation and death is called the Sin: direct relation to the God is replaced with the sacrificial, indirect relation. In the Bible woman takes the blame. Pre-agricultural mythological entrance of death into the world wasn't so fatalistic but accidental.

Additionally, in the Bible, men were punished with painful toil of the field and woman with the pains of childbearing. So the paradise fantasy of the patriarchal men was no work and lots of sex? In consequence, children are discipline for women, and undisciplined women are cheap, promiscuous, and in the end, prostitutes. NIV - Genesis, The Fall of Man
In the Quran God gives forgiveness man for the Sin on prayer (without punishment). Because there is now no myth that would indicate what the woman is, Islam had a problem. Maybe the covering of women is the attempt to cover the fact they don't know who the woman is? The Holy Quran English - Al-Baqarah 38

When we remove the depressiveness of the pains and guilt, we can have a historical picture. The Paradise Garden is idealized view of (hunter) gatherer society from the farmer's perspective. Neolithic revolution provided more food and population grew (more children per women). In opposition to the Bible, we find agriculturally affirming story from Nigeria. Feminine characters, the first woman and the goddess, play the major roles. "Abassi created the world and the first man and woman. Because Abassi did not want anyone to compete with him, he decided that the people he had created could not be allowed to live on Earth. His wife, Atai, disagreed with him. She insisted that Abassi allow the couple to settle on Earth. Abassi finally permitted them to do so but with two conditions: They could neither grow their own food nor have children. To make it unnecessary for the couple to grow crops or hunt, Abassi rang a bell to summon them to the sky, where they ate all their meals with him. The woman, however, began to till the soil and produce food. Her husband agreed that the food she grew was better than the food Abassi gave them, so he joined her in the fields. The couple stopped having meals with Abassi. In time, they also began to have children. Abassi told Atai that he had been right about not letting humans live on Earth; they had forgotten him. Atai reassured him that humans would never be his equal. To keep people in their place, she sent death into the world." AM - Abassi (Abasi) Anang, Efik - p. 1
We can say that other animals are immortal because they are ignorant of death and that the animal world ended and dimension of God was revealed. Corey Anton lessons on Heidegger and others. -

Until the late nineteen century women generally didn't have voting right or access to high education. Failure to explain the lack of successful women in history continued the patriarchal myth. The Baby Face movie shows a woman who, after the death of her father, enters the fantasy by these instructions: "A woman, young, beautiful like you can get anything she wants in the world because you have power over men. (...) But you must use men, not let them use you. You must be a master, not a slave. Go to some big city where you will find opportunities. Use men. Be strong!" The woman fully accepts the idea. But she remained a slave, but now, a well paid one. She is a hero of men who want to use women, but are cowards to pay the overall price. She is a guilt-free prostitute. Baby Face (1933) - Alfred E. Green, Gene Markey, Kathryn Scola, Darryl F. Zanuck - Abbreviated: BB - 00:13:03

Lack of successful women in history is substituted by the myth: "behind every successful man there is a woman". But let's play with the myth and claim that behind every successful serial killer there is a mother. Hitchcock in Psycho tells a story in the tradition of the horror genre, which started with gothic novel, where the house (castle precisely) is occupied by a horrific character. Posebni dodaci: Alfred Hitchock - Psiho - HRT 3
Child psychologists say that the house on the children's paintings represents the mother. Hitchcock's paranoid main character is fully identified with his mother, so every intruder must be eliminated from the house. Kierkegaard and Tesla found women to be obstacles in their work.

Motherland is also needed to be protected from the intruders in racist paranoia, so behind every successful collective murder is there is the Motherland. See REC in First Judgment chapter
And finally: behind every successful mass murder there is the Mother Nature. American Quarantine movie series is based on Spanish REC movie series. Quarantine 2 explained how the zombies are infected people with the mutated rabies infection. The author of the virus said that our "population keeps growing and consuming while our planet is dying." Quarantine 2: Terminal -directed by John Pogue -01:04:12
So the Mother Nature needs to be protected from her own children? Overpopulation is a widespread myth; a poor family with ten children can spend a lot less recourses in their lifetime compared to a rich family with only one child. Household final consumption expenditure per capita -

The all-carrying Mother Nature originates from water-system agriculture. Egyptian Isis "was able to produce life without a partner". FFE - Isis - p. 507-509
Often compared, the Virgin Mary is also the Queen of Heavens "portrayed suckling her infant son" (Horus - Sun god). Slash-and-burn agriculture inspired more ugly and destructive ideas of Mother Nature. Like Isis, Hindu goddess Kali is also famous. "Queen of Heavens" is mentioned in the Bible as the pagan god. - NIV - Jeremiah 44
She "embodies the fact that, according to the Hindu, the world exists only by way of sacrifice; that is, the consumption of aspects of life is the source of prosperity." Fire farming has "the necessity of death for fertility". CMW - Kali - p. 445
She is depicted "with wild eyes, bloody fangs and human heads as a necklace around her neck" dancing on the corpses of mass murder. Coatlicue, Aztec's Mother Nature, have both characteristics. Americans developed water systems, but didn't have animals to use in the field, as mentioned earlier. Ecological mythologies today combine the innocence of a virgin mother with the circle of life (sacrifice).
The myth combines the virgin birth and the sacrifice of the gods: "In one myth, a large ball of feathers floated from the sky and landed at Coatlicue’s feet as she swept out her home one day. She picked it up and tucked it in her pocket. SMAM - Coatlicue - p. 31
Doing so made her pregnant. Ashamed and horrified that their mother had so mysteriously become pregnant, Coatlicue’s 400 sons, led by their sister Coyolxauhqui, prepared to attack her. But before they could, Huitzilopochtli [Sun god] sprang from her womb, fully grown, and killed them all.(...) Huitzilopochtli sent them all to the sky, Coyolxauhqui to be the Moon and her brothers to be the stars." (Aztec pervert line: do you want to tuck the feathers?) Similar to Kali, Coatlicue "was often shown with loose and sagging breasts and with claws for hands and feet. She wore a skirt made of snakes, and around her neck hung a skull strung on a necklace of human hearts." - SMAM - p. 31

Perspective on Mother Nature of industrial agriculture is no longer with the both feet in the ash or mud, but with the satellite view, thermometer touch, filter taste and smell and mathematically precise dimensions and graphs. She doesn't sound like the waves and the waterfall or crackling and blazing fires. We don't really like nature, but parks and gardens. Even vegans are angry when stepping on dog excrement.
Her sound is not natural but artificial, and even more than before, can be only represented with art. Photosynthesis is the source of energy (food) for the vast majority of life on the Planet. Artificial photosynthesis is, metaphorically speaking, Virgin Father (Sun) type of food production. Of course the Sun is also part of the nature, but in mythology Sun is masculine.

Revelations, predictions of the future "often belonged to a girl before she reached puberty or to an older woman past childbearing age" because of the menstruation taboo. (Women in menopause might be the original witches?). Encyclopedia of African History and Culture - African Kingdoms - Willie F. Page - p. 87
Today’s predictions are done by the scientific precision. What we know is that Mother Nature has two apocalyptic faces, one is ecological other is economical. Mass murder is predicted in poor regions of the world. In the form of apocalyptic climate changes she will destroy by the natural laws. But the most damage will be done in the poor regions that can't protect themselves. And after overconcentration of carbon dioxide the she will transform into eternal "hell" of Venus. Two Faces of Apocalypse: A Letter from Copenhagen - Polygraph 22 Ecology & Ideology - Michael Hardt

On the opposite, "masculine", thermonuclear war catastrophe will result in "reduced sunlight", winter. Starting city fires were a military goal in the first century and it still is in the twenty first century. Scientific millenarianism - Alvin M. Weinberg
John the Evangelist when writing about Armageddon wasn't here a visionary, but the war didn't change. UXL - p. 109
"War... War never changes". Well, the fire power got extreme. Fallout 3 - Teaser - Trailer - Bethesda Game Studios
The destructive effect of nuclear bombs is in their ability to "send out shock waves that shatter structures and infrared pulses can irradiate those smashed fuels into flame". Fire: A Brief History - Stephan J. Pyne - p. 110
The smoke and soot from burnt cities can block the sunlight causing "nuclear winter". The myth is that war produces scientific breakthroughs; the rich get scared (like the rest) and are willing to invest more into science for military advantage. We can invest in science without the war. Independence Day (1996 film) - Roland Emmerich and Dean Devlin
The apocalyptic Independence Day movie confirms the myth on another level. At first sight, humanity unites against superior intergalactic, parasitic, biblical locust-swarm like aliens. But the message is also the opposite: humanity can be totally parasitic and militaristic and still build intergalactic spaceships. Reduced sunlight can be caused by a comet and asteroid impact, and supervolcano eruption.
Military fail to save people from disasters (like Hurricane Katrina) ended up with "doomsday Preppers"(survivalists). In the USA today, Dependence Day means government intervention, such an irony. Armageddon is from the Hebrew - hill of Megiddo - a strategic military location.

The terms ecology and economy, come from the Greek oikos, meaning house hold. Today in economy "house hold metaphor" ignores the nature (and production). It works as a closed economic system and is used for promoting austerity measures. The New Cambridge History of Political Thought - Terence Ball and Richard Bellamy - Green political theory
The facts of production, combining labor with nature, is why the government interventions in the economy works (at least for one reason: capital is forced into production). In ecology "house hold metaphor" ignores the Sun, Earth is treated as a closed system (like it is in the organic agriculture). See also for government intervention: 23 Things They Don’t Tell You about Capitalism - Ha-Joon Chang

Industrial agriculture liberated men from the painful toil of the field, but didn't liberated men from the painful toil altogether. It enabled mass education and health care which increased the life expectancy and decreased the number of children per woman but it didn't liberate women from housework. (Parents have had many children because a lot of them died.) Revelation of socialized housework implies the end of the bourgeois world. (For example, we can have universal mess rooms.) Women, Race and Class - The Approaching Obsolescence of Housework: A Working-Class Perspective - Angela Davis

The pre-cultural, natural economic role of women (and men) ought to be playing is ridiculed by Malawi and Mozambique people. "According to myth, after he created Earth, Muluku dug two holes. AM - p. 88
A man emerged from one hole and a woman from the second. He gave them land and the tools they needed to live and instructed them in how to cultivate crops, care for the land, and use what the Earth gave them. However, instead of working the land, the people went into the forest to live off what they could find there. Muluku then summoned two monkeys and gave them the same tools and instructions. Monkeys don't teach others how to use tools, they learn by imitation. Ants cultivate fungus underground. But when mutualism becomes agriculture?
The monkeys followed his instructions and pleased him. He cut off the monkeys' tails and attached them to the humans, saying that from that time on the humans would be monkeys, and the monkeys would be humans." Today, the obsessed with nature (primitivists) can't decide how to treat women on a date, like the common chimp or bonobo? The Planet of Apes movie series failed to learn the Muluku lesson.

Similarly, in the Quran God gives all the knowledge to the first human, who was then above angels in knowledge. (This is one of the reasons why Islam had its Golden Age in the beginning and then stagnated.) The Holy Quran English - Al-Baqarah 32-34
But the myth can be other way around, and this is the usual form. The monkeys that didn't obey God's rules become humans. Instead of living off what they could find in the forest, they stole God's tools and knowledge how to cultivate crops, care for the land, and use what the Earth gave them. The disobedience is implying that the gods didn't want us to become like them. Fire, the first gods' knowledge, simply don't belong on earth, so it must be stolen, as mentioned in the previous chapter.
The disappointment with being like gods is recorded in the biblical genesis, which is the most comical and ironic myth, better than best British dark comedy: the first feeling when we became like gods, knowing good and evil, is being wrong and ashamed. NIV - Genesis, The Beginning, The Fall of Man

Monkeys know their place; it is in the forest, up in the trees. We don't know our place; we go into space. We can't escape these facts, but only create unreachable criteria for gods. The question is then what will "give mankind equal footing with the gods"? The obsessed with technique (transhumanists) are always one step behind the gods, "chasing gods". And isn't the knowledge (language) already the dimension of gods? Prometheus (2012) - Ridley Scott, Jon Spaihts and Damon Lindelof - 00:17:07

Agriculture gave birth to class societies and to the subordination of women. Attempt to recreate conditions of hunter-gatherer society is a symptom of being hunted by the historical materialist monster that lives in the underground. In digging out and killing the monster we are confronted with the dimension of gods/God. So, to answer, what is woman? Both.

Polluting the Ugly World

"The ugly, in the form of the terrifying and the diabolical, makes its entry into the Christian world with John the Evangelist's Book of Revelation." On Ugliness - Abbreviated: OU - Umberto Eco - p.74

Umberto Eco covers ugliness in empirical fashion in his large work On Ugliness. OU - p.80
He states that the popularity of millenarianism in the medieval culture is due to the detrimental life conditions after the fall of Roman Empire and due to "the promise of a better future to be obtained through rebellion". Eco's covering of hell, Satanism, witchcraft and all kinds of ugliness might be interesting to the reader.

Ugliness in music it is measurable at the level of wavelength. Diabolus in musica, devil in music, the diminished fifth (for example, F-B) is a dissonant interval that creates tension and expectation of some kind of resolution. Psychologists say it has the power to excite and it was used by many great classical compositors such as Bach and Mozart. OU - p. 421

Søren Kierkegaard's psychological-philosophical categories help us explain the different types of ugliness in black metal. Venom's song Black Metal, as the starting point of analysis, fall into what Kierkegaard called the "demonic rage". The Sickness Unto Death - Søren Kierkegaard - ebook: no pages
This is the rage that smolder at first in the introvert as a feeling of being different, then as the "defiance over one weakness" that burns in revolt. This type will "plunge into life", "become a restless spirit", "a restless spirit which wants to forget, the louder the noise - the stronger means are needed" or "he will seek forgetfulness in sensuality, perhaps in debauchery". The analysis comes from Denial of Death chapter on Kierkegaard by Ernest Becker.
If the whole universe came down to apologize and ask forgiveness for being such an inhospitable place and took the blame for all the pains and suffering - it is too late. His suffering is now the advantage over others and justification for being what he is. Sharia Law doesn't forbid the new enjoyments like speeding, which is common "intoxicant" of choice.

The second type of ugliness in black metal is what Kierkegaard called the "philistinism". These types of bands don't need a representative, as they were boring when they went to the church and now they are even worse. This type only "learns to imitate the other". Devoid of imagination, they are "tranquilized in the trivial" of "how things go, what is possible, what usually occurs". They are unoriginal, uncritical, dull creatures reduced to role-playing in safe and predictable social games. They are afraid of philosophy. If they read this, they will try to find the flaws, the explicit proof that this is not tr00, kvlt and on the right side of the "black metal Krieg".

The third type is what Kierkegaard described as the "despair of necessity". This is the depressive black metal, all its ugliness is represented by the band Mayhem (precisely its singer and songwriter Per "Dead" Ohlin). Pure Fucking Mayhem documentary - Stefan Rydehed
To this type "everything has become necessary"; there is no possibility in the world. Or everything has become trivial and one can't escape it. Fatalism or determinism, mechanistic reductions of all kinds simply lack possibility. "Without possibility a man cannot, as if were, draw breath", as if they are imprisoned by their own skin. See also: the interview with Thomas Gabriel Fischer (Hellhammer, Celtic Frost, Triptykon) -,144928
This explains why cutting the skin is connected with such "strong feeling of release". Paranoia - Ideas in Psychoanalysis - David Bell - p. 44

The fourth type is the paranoid black metal. Kierkegaard would call it the "despair of possibility". The Daniel Paul Schreber is a school example of a paranoid case. His apocalyptic vision makes the case even more interesting. Dr. Schreber's was a judge who kept detailed records of his illness. He believed how heavenly forces are turning him into a woman so God could have children with him, and then they will repopulate the destroyed world and return to the state of the bliss. Paranoia - Ideas in Psychoanalysis - David Bell - The Schreber Case - p. 20
Kierkegaard describes this feeling as fantastical, limitless, drunkenness, but it is followed by feelings of persecution, being hunted, disintegration and putridity of the body. It all started when Schreber imagined how beautiful is to be a woman in a sexual act. He couldn't deal with the homosexual idea so he created a fantastic system. The illusion (fantastical system) is not the sickness, but the healing attempt, as Freud proved. But contrary to Freud we know now that homosexuality is not the only cause of paranoia. Kierkegaard's observation that paranoid can stabilize and live on "perfectly well" (in illusion) is proven by the Schreber's case. To use monkey-god terminology: paranoid is too much on the god side and depressive is too much on the monkey side. Philistine is in the middle of this 2D, left-right, spacial metaphore. Demonic rage is above philistine in 3D view.

There are many good examples of paranoid black metal. In reconstructing the world paranoid must be creative. Deathspell Omega are openly Gnostic. They think they possess "knowledge about the evil" (gnosis) which is unknown to the majority. Deities appeared to them (theophany) but they didn't understand it at the time; the signs are everywhere but most people chose to ignore them. One album, they say "was conceived through or maybe even despite [them]" and the name of an album is "If you seek his monument, look around you" (Si monvmentvm reqvires, circvmspice). For them, evil is a real and existing being. It must be said that they are influenced by many authors and this can be confusing at first sight. Typical Gnostic dualist believes how material world is evil and spiritual world is good. Spliting of the world is like a swim in the quicksand, when you have constructed the world and sand becomes concreate, the world is drought. You can definitely have an interesting and informative conversation with the paranoid (unlike with the philistine). "[That we] eventually all experienced a shattering theophany is something very hard to explain in rational terms. [...] There's also these signs punctuating one's life since childhood [...] way before any conscious intellectualisation of Manichean theories. -Interview with Deathspell Omega from AJNA Offensive -

Purifying the ugly world is the paranoid and depressive position, polar opposites yet both obsessed with what they perceive is the "pure evil". Purifying the beautiful world is the philistine's constant suppression of everything meaningful, and meaning is for them a constant and a horrifyingly ugly threat. Polluting the beautiful world is the demoniac rage; they turned their ugliness into an advantage, which is close but no cigar. Polluting the ugly world means negation of all previous combinations: forgiving the universe for the existence of evil. New atheists use the word "nature" as if they are talking about God. Here, the word "universe" is used instead.

Universal Millenarianism

"I have come to bring fire on the earth, and how I wish it were already kindled!" NIV - Luke 12:49

There is a general connection of (modern) revolutionary thought with millenarianism. Sometimes this aims to discredit the ideas connecting them with religion and irrationality. Then you don't have engage the ideas and you can simply dismiss what is "seemingly faulty". "The Victory of the Proletariat is Inevitable: The Millenarian Nature of Marxism - David T. Byrne "
Particular argument is that historical materialism is not based on "history or science, but Scripture". But on the contrary, only historical materialism can explain millenarianism. See also: The Pursuit of the Millennium - Norman Cohn

Most arguments against historical materialism belong to comparative mythology. Starting with: "Any history written on Christian principles will be of necessity universal, providential, apocalyptic and periodized". There is nothing specifically Christian about it. - David T. Byrne quoted - The Idea of History - R.G. Collingwood - p. 49
For example, Aztec mythology has four periods that all ended in apocalyptic catastrophes and the last will be "characterized by great wickedness, earthquakes and famine, resulting in the destruction of many people", afterwards the next age "will bring eternal light". CM - ages - p. 31
Similar narratives are found in Hindu, Babylonian, Norse, Greek, Roman and they can be most probabaly foud in every agricultural society. (After the Book of Revelation the second comparative source that appears the Joachim of Fiore's "theory of the three ages".) If we remove "the end of the world of sacrifice", specificity of Abrahamic religions becomes questionable.

Historical materialist scientific base is founded by Adam Smith, a father of (political) economy. It must be said that every scientific theory is revised in the light of the new evidences, which are many since the eighteenth century. Smith divided history into "periods of hunting, pasture, agriculture and commerce". "Glasgow Edition - R. H. Campbell and A. S. Skinner -Wealth of Nations - Adam Smith - The Stages Of Society "
The most important idea is how each era has its corresponding form of government and class relations. Smith believed historical progress led to the system where "social structure or set of relations between classes is necessarily presupposed", but the era of commerce (capitalism) is in fact a class system, and this is a key distinction between the liberal and the Left. Proudhon's What is Property? had big influence on Engels and Marx but Bakunin correctly argued that Capital is the best critique of political economy.

And one example to end this eurocentric (and sometimes antisemitic) obsession with the Christian origins: "Although the millenarian foundations of Christianity and its Scenario of the return of the dead surely resonated in indigenous cultures and provoked a reawakening of traditional eschatologies, many messianic movements were outright and bitter rejections of Christianity, even where prophets took on biblical or saintly names, or the name of Christ." The Cambridge history of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Volume 3, South America Part 2 - Robin M. Wright with Manuela Carneiro da Cunh - p.301

Other styles of arguments against historical materialism are moralistic. Judgment is made on violence that are the consequence of millenarian ideas: "conditions of persistent economic misery and social marginalisation were a necessary but not sufficient cause...". The millenarian ideas are the sparks in the world soaked in the fuel. On the Path of perpetual Revolution: From Marx's Millenarianism to Sendero Luminoso - Ronald Osborn
"The poor and the poorer peoples are accused of violence, yet without equal opportunities the different forms of aggression and conflict will find a fertile terrain for growth and eventually explode." Evangelii Gaudium - Francis - p.49-50
But it is not sure how we should protect everyone from the ideas? Alternative proposal is the idea of class forgiveness, peace, reconciliation which should occupy this open space. But the struggle against the system "economic misery and social marginalization is" is the forgiveness. See also: Riches, Poverty, and the Faithfull: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and Apocalypse of John. - Mark D. Mathews
The solution is not charity, in Oscard Wilde's words: "the proper aim is to try and reconstruct society on such a basis that poverty will be impossible". As the proverb goes: give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man how to fish, give them acces to the sea, to cut it short: give a man access to the means of production, and you don't have to bother with a man. The Soul of Man under Socialism - Oscard Wilde

A proper revenge is articulated by Alexandre Christu. He was a one of the best know millenarian visionary from Baniwa people. The prophecies "of a world conflagration" had a firm base in the tradition, but also had the "definite political ends" through which "they would be freed from political and economic domination by the whites". In revenge they "would govern the whites in compensation for the time the whites had governed them". (What would mean the revenge today? No income, unemployment for the rich?) The Cambridge History of the Native peoples of the Americas Volume 3, South America part 2 - Robin M. Wright with Manuela Carneiro da Cunh - p.367-8

The best motivated moralistic arguments can turn around. Works like the Apocalypse of Anastasia criticized "the government's harsh corporal punishments and also corrupt officials. However, they did not set out to overturn the imperial order as such or propagate heresy: on the contrary they probably owed their popularity to their effective reinforcing of the Orthodox moral code against proselytising heretics." (Corruption is mostly present due to unemployment and inequlity of income; the very premises of the private accumulation of wealth.) The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 5, Eastern Christianity - The Byzantine Commonwealth 1000-1550 - Jonathan Shepard - p.47

Also, scientific theories are concerned with the truth and not with morality. (Remember all the accusations made on Darwin and the violent consequences of his work.) Furthermore, millenarian belief isn't automatic disqualification. Scientific theory can't be dismissed and scientists can't be discredited based on their religious beliefs. The clearest case is Isaac Newton, who is undoubtedly one of the most important scientists of all time. Regarding the accuracy of the Bible, "Newton insisted, God preserved the accuracy of the crucial prophetic texts, Daniel and Revelation". The problem with the scientific theories and especially with the theories of history is that there is no political (and theological) neutrality. The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy, Volume 1 - God - The religious background of seventeenth-century philosophy - Richard Popkin - p. 413

There are mainly three political concepts that were visible from "Hellenistic Jewish attitudes towards the Roman empire". Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria was "a great admirer of the Roman empire". Apostle Paul, on the other hand, had "the opinion that the empire is a God-given institution, destined to protect and discipline humanity". And the third attitude "was much more revolutionary and hostile, or at least more critical, vis-a-vis the civil power than the aforementioned two. It is that of apocalyptic, as found e.g. in the book of Daniel, in the Jewish passages of the Sibyllines, and in the apocalypses of Ezra and of Baruch." And of course, the three political attitudes are as old as class societies. Cambridge History of Christianity, Vol. 1, Origins to Constantine (2006) - Church and state up to c. 300 Ce -Presuppositions of early Christian ‘political’ thinking - Adolf Martin Ritter - p. 525

These attitudes are highly problematic from the standpoint of today's Left. But they are useful as the evidences against the dominant history, which is present from schoolbooks over movies and music to computer games. Dominant history is like a special crystal ball, or like online quizzes: "Who were you in a past life?". After few questions, and a deep look into the ball, it is crystal clear you were an princes, but just like Cinderella, you ended up (being born) in the wrong class. See also: Misquoting Jesus - The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why - Bart D. Ehrman

Assassins, and computer game inspired by them, are a good counter example. The militant Isma'ilis had many ideas, but they were "first and foremost millenarian in anticipating a new and final dispensation by revolutionary action." The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV, Part 2 - The Order of Assassins - Michael Brett - p. 701
The game Assassin's Creed series are not focused on class struggle, but it has the most interesting feature. In the game a machine enables us to access ancestral memories through genes. Assassin's Creed - Ubisoft Montreal
We find out we are in the lineage of the Assassins and play from the first view of our ancestors. When we "go back" into our time we carry the perspective and the abilities. The modest point of the essay is how (most of) our ancestors had more in common with the Assassins than with the royal guards, noble knights etc. Class element is evident in Bioshock series by Ken Levine, 2K Marin and Irrational Games
To add Alber Camus words, "thanks to rebellion, there is something more in history than the relation between mastery and servitude." The Rebel - Alber Camus
(Richard Garfield should definitely make a class struggle game.) In the region today we have a similar situation. See the Wikipedia's List of revolutions and rebellions.
David Graeber compared revolutionary Kurds (PKK) in Syria with revolutionaries in Spanish Civil War and forces of Isis with Franco's fascists. " David Graeber "

The last example of an apocalypse is the French Revolution. Michel Foucault was correct; the years marked the beginning of social sciences and passage to the modern era. The existence of clear cuts in history was confirmed. Remember, nobility justified their class by claiming to be direct descendants of the gods, with God given rights to rule. It is impossible to have social science with the mythical beings on the top of the social pyramid. The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought- Ideology and the origins of social science - Robert Wokler - p. 692
The event can't be reduced to political sacrifice or revenge. Revolutionaries apear now as the original Myth Busters publicly displaying there is no blue blood. The effect of the guillotine became global scientific fact, without the need for repetition. MythBusters - Peter Rees, Adam Savage, Jamie Hyneman
Nobility was exposed as well performed circus with the expensive costumes. This is the double lesson for the conspiracy theorists today, which like the conspiracy theorists back then, saw the master plan in the catastrophic rule of the nobility. Paranoia is safety, as Kurt Cobain sang: "Just because you're paranoid, don't mean they're not after you". Its effects are so great that later blue blood theorists used "science" and were focused on the appearances.
To rephrase it: Just because you're paranoid, don't mean everything isn't falling apart. French Revolution, as the peak of the Enlightenment, confronts us with the radical responsibility, and that is the true terror. Territorial Pissings - Nevermind - Nirvana

In order to avoid revolutionary terror, periods are removed from history. In the end, this resulted in the capitalist religion commonly known as Neoliberalism. Check out the philosophers of terror: Slavoj Žižek and Alain Badiou
While bourgeoisie Natural given rights to rule function perfectly well under the authoritarian state, the preferred rule of capitalism is the guilt. Apprentice's Sorcerer: Liberal Tradition and Fascism - Ishay Landa
It took a long time before capitalism could find its god. This is not biblical Mammon or Satan, or personified greed, neither sacred private property, nor fetishised labor or commodities. Capitalism as Religion - Walter Benjamin
The Vikings could not foresee such oppressive result of merging of the god's of morality and production. CMW - p. 472
This is the god of the last man, his name is the Consumer. His satisfaction is equated with the absolute good. His total satisfaction would mean the end of the world, because this is impossible, the result is a type of promethean progress without an end. Thus Spoke Zarathustra - Friedrich Nietzsche
Neoliberalism in a nutshell, is socialism of the unreachable super-material event. It is a two class system. Entrepreneurs are "creative servants" and wage-earners are "time servants". They say, serving Consumer is not perfect, but the best way of organizing our lives. The measure for the Consumer satisfaction is profit. Higher the satisfaction, higher the profits. So any interference in profits is bad, wrong or simply evil because it is the Consumer who suffers in the end. Notice the archaic, romanticized entrepreneur class and neologistic, new speech wage-earner class - striped from labor or work. Wage-earners sell their time on the time market?
Even more, interference leads to the "excluded servants" as a direct punishment from the god. The guilt is the (psychological) manifestation of his existence. Union strikes or progressive taxation looks like pity revolt (or revenge) (against the profits) without the vision of the final battle, the divine violence or the goods of the doom. See also The Society of the Spectacle - Guy Debord

"Everywhere there is the sense of the approaching cataclysm, and almost everywhere the implied belief that it doesn't matter". George Orwell could not describe better the defeatist attitude of our time: there is nothing we can do about the world but wait for its destruction. Refusal to fight is a declaration of irresponsibility. One of his statements is to be turned around, reinterpreted. Leftists have never been so afraid of the words, and at the same time they think words can't change things: "So much of left-wing thought is a kind of playing with fire by people who don't even know that fire is hot." Inside the Whale - George Orwell